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/Training Enhancers Team

Friday, 28 September 2012

10 Tough Questions Every Self-Aware Leader Needs to Answer - Part 1

There’s an old maxim about not answering a question with a question, so I’m not gonna do that. I’m gonna answer a question with TEN questions!

And the question is: How can you become a more “self-aware” leader?

As one of the keys to being an effective leader is self-awareness, here are 10 powerful, thought-provoking, and challenging questions you need to think about – and be ready, willing and able to answer – if you truly want to be a more reflective – and effective – leader:

Question 1: How do YOU personally define “leadership”?

There’s a great little book by Mark Sanborn called, “You Don’t Need a Title to Be a Leader.” In a nutshell, as the title implies, true leadership is not about rank or position – it’s about exhibiting leadership qualities… and stepping up to leadership when leadership is needed. There are almost as many different definitions of leadership out there as there are leaders. Management guru Peter Drucker said that “The only definition of a leader is someone who has followers.” President John Quincy Adams famously wrote that “If your actions inspire others to dream more, learn more, do more, and become more, you are a leader.” So if one of your people came up to you and asked you for YOUR personal definition of leadership, how would YOU respond?

Question 2: Who are some of the leaders (“public figures”) that you admire – and why?

Who are those leaders throughout history, or current leaders out there today – from the world of business, politics, the arts, sports, etc. – whom you most admire – and why? What are the key leadership characteristics, qualities or traits they possess that you feel made them successful? And who are some of the people out there in leadership roles who you think are not effective leaders… and what is it that they did wrong? Oftentimes we can learn as much from other people’s failures as from their successes. And while we’re at it, regarding the classic question “Are great leaders made or born?” how would you answer that one?

Question 3: Who have been some of the influential leaders in your own life (“private figures”) who have taught you something about leadership?

While we often look to the famous and to the history books when discussing leadership, it is more than likely that the most impactful leaders in each of own lives are people we’ve personally known. So who are the people who shaped who you are and what you believe in? Who are the ones who influenced your ethics, core values, and personal leadership style? Parents and grandparents, friends and neighbors, teachers, coaches, and bosses (both good and bad!) have all put their stamp on who you are and how you are when managing and leading others. So who are some of those people who have touched your life in some way? Who are the best leaders you’ve ever worked for – and who are the worst? What did you learn from them, and how has that impacted how you lead today?

Question 4: What have been some of the “defining leadership moments” in your life?

As we go about our daily lives, most days can be described as “business as usual.” But every once in a while something happens – an incident or an interaction – that transforms us in a profound and memorable way. Sometimes we realize it right then and there; other times it does not become apparent until long down the road. But these are the “defining moments” that leave us with the vivid leadership lessons that we carry with us across the years. These are the “home movies” that we play over and over again in our minds to remind us of who we are and how we got here. These are the stories that serve both to form the fabric of our being and function as our guiding compass. So what are some of those unforgettable, life-altering leadership-related moments from your past that define who you are today?

Question 5: What are you truly passionate about?

What gets you up and out of bed in the morning? And what keeps you up at night? Are you passionate about leading others? If you do not demonstrate passion, how can you expect your people to? Passion is contagious. Negativity is, too. When I worked at a major TV network earlier in my career, I would say to my boss, “Good morning!” And she would say to me, “What’s good about it? Another day in this hell hole!” That’s how the morning started, and it just went downhill from there. One way to look at it is to ask, “What is my ‘Leadership Weather Report’ today?” When you walk into a room, are you a cloud of doom and gloom – with a forecast of intense thunder and lightning looming? Or are you a warm and inspirational ray of sunshine that lights up a room and brings out the best in those around you? Rather than trying to light a fire under people, great leaders light a fire within them. So are you clear on what it is that you are truly passionate about… and do you inspire passion in others?

Wednesday, 26 September 2012

List of Cloud Certifications

Cloud certifications and Cloud computing certifications are very young, but their value grows so fast. Managers and IT specialist want to extend their knowledge about neutral cloud topics, but also vendor-specific implementations.

Not too many vendors created Cloud certifications.

Few of them, like Arcitura Education with the CloudSchool program, created vendor neutral certifications.

The biggest vendors like HP, EMC, Microsoft and IBM have in their portfolio also Cloud certifications, that help you with prove your skills about products and technologies.

On the horizon we can see other vendors like Huawei or Cisco with new certifications.

This is for sure a big and good trend for companies (on the management level) and also engineers or IT architects.

List of Cloud Certifications
29 Certifications 12 Vendors

Arcitura Education

Arcitura EducationArcitura Education created a set of Cloud certifications beside their SOA certifications. Not all are available yet, but they are great to prove your proficiency in specific areas of cloud computing.

  • Certified Cloud Professional
  • Certified Cloud Technology Professional
  • Certified Cloud Architect
  • Certified Cloud Security Specialist
  • Certified Cloud Governance Specialist
  • Certified Cloud Storage Specialist
  • Certified Cloud Trainer

More about these cloud certifications on the Arcitura Education website.

Cloud Security Alliance (CSA)

Cloud Security AllianceThe launch of CSA’s CCSK program is an important step in improving security professionals’ understanding of cloud security challenges and best practices and will lead to improved trust of and increased use of cloud services.


CompTIACompTIA has only one neutral Cloud certification, addressed to people who want to understand the cloud idea.

Cloud Security Alliance

CCSKThe Cloud Security Alliance’s Certificate of Cloud Security Knowledge (CCSK) is the industry’s first user certification program for secure cloud computing.


EMCEMC has in the portfolio three certifications for Cloud specialists. One for people who start with cloud topics with EMC solutions and two for Architects (the highest level).

  • EMC Cloud Infrastructure and Services (EMCCIS)
  • EMC Cloud Architect (EMCCA) IT-as-a-Service Planning and Design
  • EMC Cloud Architect (EMCCA) Virtualized Infrastructure Specialty

More about these cloud certifications on the EMC website.


EXINEXIN has one cloud certification in the portfolio. This cloud certification is suited for a management level, but also engineers find this valuable. The EXIN certification was built by specialists from 4 companies.


HPHP at this moment, has two certifications for people who are familiar with HP cloud technologies.
You must provide more end-to-end architectural skills with these cloud certifications.

  • HP Accredited Technical Associate – Cloud
  • HP Accredited Solutions Expert – Cloud Architect

More about these cloud certifications on the HP website.


IBMIBM has three certification for people who want to demonstrate their knowledge with the Cloud Computing infrastructure solutions.
One certification is focused on Tivoli systems, two on architectural concepts.

  • IBM Service Management Tivoli Cloud Computing Infrastructure
  • IBM Certified Solution Advisor – Cloud Computing Architecture
  • IBM Certified Solution Architect – Cloud Computing Infrastructure

More about these cloud certifications on the IBM website.


Microsoft Cloud CertificationMicrosoft is one of the biggest players on the certifications markets. 20 years after creating first IT certifications, Microsoft developed first cloud certification. New will be available this year.


OracleOracle has only one certification that touches cloud concepts. In the future we should see much more.

RackSpace Hosting

CloudUCloudU is a cloud certification designed for IT professionals and business leaders who want to upgrade their knowledge of the fundamentals of Cloud Computing. CloudU program is sponsored by RackSpace Hosting.

    SalesforceSalesforce is a cloud computing company. All certifications from the Salesforce portfolio are based on their cloud services.
    Companies who use certified cloud specialists see smoother deployments and better use of Salesforce.

    • Certified Administrator
    • Certified Advanced Administrator
    • Certified Developer
    • Certified Advanced Developer
    • Certified Sales Cloud Consultant
    • Certified Service Cloud Consultant
    • Certified Technical Architect

    Thursday, 20 September 2012

    The Art of Online Instruction

    "One machine can do the work of fifty ordinary men. No machine can do the work of one extraordinary man."
    — Elbert Hubbard
    "One machine can do the work of fifty ordinary men. No machine can do the work of one extraordinary man." — Elbert Hubbard
    Teaching online is increasingly an option for higher education instructors. Traditional institutions are expanding their reach by adding online versions of their existing programs and online universities continue to add new programs to their catalogs. And in some cases, teaching online is a requirement, as traditional faculty are encouraged or assigned to take their face-to-face courses online.

    Online instructors can realize benefits from the virtual delivery of an academic course, but they also face a number of challenges. While they enjoy some of the same benefits that draw online students in terms of convenience and flexibility, online instructors must also master additional skills associated with the technology and administration required of a virtual learning environment.

    Comparing Online and Traditional Classrooms

    Making the move from face-to-face instruction to virtual instruction is becoming less complicated, as traditional classrooms incorporate learning management systems (LMS), such as Blackboard, eCollege, Moodle, and Sakai. The LMS is now used in many course formats traditional, blended, and completely online to manage and organize course content and provide additional methods for students and instructors to interact and communicate.

    When online course sites are used to deliver the course materials, the online instructor’s role is to facilitate the learning experience, student interaction with the materials, and student-to-student interaction. This facilitation involves several considerations that are not typically part of a face-to-face course.

    Communication Tools and Techniques

    Communication in an online course can be categorized as either synchronous (occurring in real-time) or asynchronous (participants contribute at times of their own choosing). Synchronous tools allow instructors to meet with students as a group or one-on-one when participants are all online at the same time, providing instant feedback. These tools range from text-only instant messaging to virtual classrooms with audio, video, and tools for working collaboratively (i.e. whiteboards, application sharing, web tours). Synchronous tools may be built into an LMS, accessed through a commercial license (e.g. Adobe Connect, GoToMeeting) or available as open and web-based options (e.g. Skype, GoogleTalk). Managing a synchronous event involves a number of skills related to both technology and moderating.

    Asynchronous tools allow students to provide their input, feedback, responses, etc. at times that are convenient to them, but within deadlines established in a course. Threaded discussion forums are perhaps the most prevalent asynchronous tool and are usually part of the LMS for each course. This tool allows for class discussions in which students respond to a posted question, and to each others’ responses, at different times. Managing an effective asynchronous discussion involves creating good questions that encourage exchange, moderating via text, and a great deal of reading and writing.

    Creating an Online Presence

    Online instructors often never meet their students face-to-face. This environment and the relationships between instructor and student are enhanced by the creation of online presence. Patrick Lowenthal and Tina Parscal of Regis University published a list of specific strategies available to online instructors for the development of presence in a course using computer-mediated communication. These strategies are categorized into three areas ñ instructional design, teaching, and social learning. Examples of strategies for creating teaching and social presence in an online course include posting student and instructor profiles within the LMS, sharing personal stories and professional experiences, and using expressions of emotions.

    Often universities with online programs will provide some guidance for online instructors on developing an online teaching presence. The Center for Teaching Excellence at Duquesne University is just one example. This information can be valuable, especially if it is based on information and feedback from the university’s online students and successful online instructors.

    Developing an Online Community

    Developing an online presence is closely linked to the development of an online community. Palloff and Pratt describe the need for an effective learning community in their 2011 book, The Excellent Online Instructor: Strategies for Professional Development. Creating an environment in which students feel they belong promotes engagement, sharing, collaboration, and support, as well as a feeling of responsibility among members.

    Wayne Hall, a professor from San Jacinto College, published his list of "5 Ways to Build Community in an Online Course". This list includes: requiring extensive student introductions; sending personal email messages to students weekly; conducting frequent student surveys or polls; providing opportunity for discussion; and conducting synchronous chat sessions. Hall also recommends the use of video throughout the class, in the form of brief introductory presentations to begin units or lessons.

    Recent research conducted by a group of instructional designers and faculty at Eastern Kentucky University also found that faculty introduction videos had value from the student perspective. A majority of students felt that viewing their instructor’s videos helped them prepare to participate in their online courses and gave them the opportunity to meet their instructors virtually.

    As an online instructor you will also be the one to set the tone for the course in terms of etiquette and netiquette. Your students will look to you for cues. Model the professional behavior you expect from your students in online communication and participation. Be explicit about how you want to be addressed in the course as the community’s leader and facilitator.

    Qualifications and Competencies

    Each institution will have its own preferences and policies for hiring online instructors. Basic qualifications usually include a minimum level of education in the field in which you will teach, work experience in your field, and teaching experience. You will find these requirements along with a list of skills as part of teaching position announcements. An overview of typical items you can expect to see is provided below. Some of these competencies are not so different from what is required for traditional courses, while others speak specifically to the needs of the online environment and the tools used there to facilitate learning at a distance.

    Professional Preparation

    • Education. Level will be based on requirements for the courses and programs. Instructor positions in higher education usually require at least a master’s degree and a doctorate is often preferred.
    • Experience. Many online universities specifically recruit faculty who have recent experience working in the fields they plan to teach. Previous teaching experience may also be a requirement.
    • Expertise. Subject matter expertise in the area you are teaching is typically required as evidenced by at least 18 graduate credit hours of coursework in the academic discipline you are teaching.

    General Skills

    • Facilitation. In an online environment, instructors are often referred to as guides or facilitators. Students will have access to course content and supplementary materials on their own. As the instructor, you will guide their progress through this content and the related activities, evaluating their learning with formal assessments. Explore online instructional strategies that can help you serve as guide. An essential component of guiding your class is your ability to facilitate and moderate synchronous and asynchronous discussions. Review a collection of specific suggestions for discussion forums.
    • Organization. Online courses require instructors to have the ability to conduct the course and as well as complete all of the related administrative requirements. You may find yourself teaching courses in overlapping terms or at multiple institutions. Keeping everything straight will be an important part of your duties.
    • Problem-solving. The virtual environment will present numerous opportunities for problem-solving, such as helping a student find the support resources he/she needs and troubleshooting your own computer’s Internet connection. Not all issues can be anticipated and you will be responsible for taking the initial steps toward finding solutions.
    • Time management. Online courses often take place over shorter terms than the semester-based academic schedule used at traditional universities. During the term, your course will be "live" 24/7, so your ability to manage progress and respond to students in a timely manner is important. Some programs have standard policies regarding time commitments for instructors to provide feedback to students. If these guidelines are not in place it will be up to you to clearly communicate what students can expect.
    • Employment negotiation and tracking. Many online instructors work as adjunct faculty and on a contract basis. It is important for you to understand issues related to pay equity, fairness in employment, salary expectations, unions, and employment contracts. You will also want to track your hours and expenses for potential reimbursement and tax implications.

    Technology Skills

    • Hardware. As an online instructor, it is likely you will also be a remote employee of the universities where you teach. This may mean using your own computer system for work. Online courses, especially those with synchronous sessions, have additional requirements for speakers, microphones, and web cameras, as well as the skills necessary to use this equipment effectively.
    • Software. Check with your Dean or supervising instructor to find out what software you will need to be able to use in your courses, as well as additional applications such as Skype or Adobe Connect. As a course instructor, it will be your responsibility to use the software and applications effectively with your students.
    • Digital and media literacies. Online instructors, as well as online students, need to be skilled in conducting an online search and assessing Web-content for credibility in terns of its currency, source, purpose, and relevance.

    Personal Characteristics

    • Self-confident. An online educator must have the self-confidence to embrace the ever-changing nature of technology and to engage students in the learning experience. Theodore Sizer, former Harvard University Dean of Education, describes the self-confidence necessary to be a successful educator: "A fine teacher does have confidence, but the honest confidence that flows from a fair recognition of one’s own frailties as well as talents and which accommodates both joyfully." (reprinted here) The truly self-confident online instructor embraces the changing nature of technology and the potential for collaboration in the technology-facilitated class as a learning experience for all participants.
    • Collaborative. Online instructors are sometimes called upon to work on committees, participate on online course development teams, and help mentor newer instructors. As in traditional university settings, there may also be the opportunity to participate in collaborative research projects and presentations.
    • Flexible. Being comfortable with change and anticipating the possibility of change is important in the online learning environment where technologies and policies may require a quick shift in procedures.
    • Willing to learn. The online learning environment is a dynamic one. As an instructor you will constantly be required to learn how to use new technologies and innovative course components. Considering the incredible pace of change in technology, even if you are an expert with hardware and software today, there is a real possibility that those systems will soon be obsolete. Be open to learning new systems and to learning from your students who may know more about a particular program or tool than you do.
    • Committed to student advocacy. Online students are also working remotely and will rely on their instructor as a front line resource for assistance with a wide range of questions and issues. You will be their link to additional resources, such as the help desk and library, which may not be a formal part of your course.
    There are ongoing efforts to refine competency lists for online instructors through both research and practice. While each school or program may have a list of instructor skills available for you to review, there are others that may be helpful resources as well.
    • Penn State’s Learning Design Community has posted a list of 30 competencies for online instructors organized into five areas: Administrative, Design, Facilitation, Evaluation, and Technical.
    • Education researchers Alvarez, Guasch, and Espasa published a 2009 article in the European Journal of Teacher Education that lists 5 key roles, and associated competencies and tasks, for online teachers. These roles include: Designer/Planner, Social, Cognitive, Technological, and Managerial.
    • In a 2007 publication titled "Master Online Teacher Competencies" by Virgil Varvel from the Illinois Online Network, a list of 7 roles was developed: Administrative (systems, ethical and legal issues), Personal (personal qualities and characteristics), Technological (technology knowledge and abilities), Instructional Design (process, knowledge, and abilities), Pedagogical (teaching processes, knowledge and abilities), Assessment (student learning and abilities), and Social (processes and presence).
    Each of these lists, and others like them, provide critical information about the skills and qualifications required for successful online instructors. There is some overlap but each list offers an interesting perspective. There is a lot to think about and prepare for, and a wealth of resources to help you get ready.

    Becoming a Successful Online Instructor

    The path to achieving success as an online instructor is made up of steps that include preparing for the work ahead, achieving realistic perspectives through assessment and experience, and learning from the pedagogy of online teaching. Some of the resources required are provided by universities and others you will need to find on your own.


    • Formal and informal training. If you are brand new to online learning, consider preparatory workshops, courses, and certificate programs offered by private companies, universities, and professional organizations. There are informal options as well in the form of open courseware focused on faculty development and topics related to online teaching.
    • Your school. Once you are hired, explore all of the resources provided to you by your new department. Look for opportunities, and potential requirements, to attend new instructor orientation sessions. You will also find helpful information and guidance in faculty handbooks and other policy and procedures manuals. Locate faculty development resources in the form of tutorials and workshops. Ask your supervisor for information related to online instructor performance expectations, to better understand how the university will measure your success as an online instructor. Ask for access as a visitor to another professorís online course at your university, so that you can learn what is expected at the school.


    • Assess yourself. Self-assessments can help you identify your current strengths and weaknesses as an online instructor. Tools such as the Faculty Self-Assessment from Penn State provide a list of critical competencies, feedback on your current levels of experience with each one, and guidance on helpful resources for you to pursue.
    • Take a course. Consider experiencing the online learning environment as a student. This experience and fresh perspective will be invaluable as you work with online students in your future courses. Some schools will pay for you to do this ñ research available options for tuition reimbursement and fee waivers.


    • Transition. Seek out opportunities to integrate technology into your traditional courses as a way to transition into a completely online course. Taking small steps in this direction will help you build your skills and comfort level with both technology and online communication.
    • If at first you don’t succeed. Take the time to assess what went well and what didnít go well in each online course you teach. Then, formulate a plan for improvement that builds on the successes you’ve had in the past. You will be better able to anticipate problems, and enhance your skills, with every new course and term.
    Being an online instructor means more than posting information online and standing back. It also means more than strictly presenting lecture content on the Internet. Effective online instruction requires interactivity both in terms of the course content and the community of learners participating in the class. Prepare yourself for your role as an online instructor with a thorough review of both your current skills and the wide variety of resources available to support your efforts.

    Monday, 17 September 2012

    Register Now! Extending video from Boardroom to workspace

    Extending Video from Boardroom to Workspace

    Live Chat on
    18th September, 2012
    10:30 A.M – 11:30 A.M IST

    Featuring Cisco
    TechWiseTV hosts:

    Robb Boyd
    and Jimmy Ray

    Connect with Us:

    See how the latest innovations are bringing high-quality videoconferencing to the desktop and making the visual workplace a reality. Discover how the H.264 Video Codec, Cisco Unified Call Manager 8.5, Cisco WebEx, and the Cisco TelePresence EX Series are making it possible for your employees to connect and collaborate visually to reduce travel costs and shorten decision-making cycles.

    Technology experts reveal how a media net architecture can give your organization a major competitive advantage.
    This TechWiseTV session will explore:
    • The Pervasive Video Workspace
    • The H.264 Video Codec
    • The Cisco WebEx Perspective
    • Centralized Call Control
    • The Tandberg Cisco TelePresence Perspective
    • Feedback Loop
    • The Wrap

    Bring your questions and your notepad and be prepared to be engaged!

    Live Chat with Cisco Experts during the broadcast.
    CIN Team

    Sunday, 16 September 2012

    .NET Software Technical Interview Questions - Part 3

    ASP.NET AJAX Interview Questions

    1. What is ASP.NET AJAX?
    ASP.NET AJAX, mostly called AJAX, is a set of extensions of ASP.NET. It is developed by Microsoft to implement AJAX functionalities in Web applications. ASP.NET AJAX provides a set of components that enable the developers to develop applications that can update only a specified portion of data without refreshing the entire page. The ASP.NET AJAX works with the AJAX Library that uses object-oriented programming (OOP) to develop rich Web applications that communicate with the server using asynchronous postback.
    2. What is the difference between synchronous postback and asynchronous postback?
    The difference between synchronous and asynchronous postback is as follows:
    • Asynchronous postback renders only the required part of the page; whereas, synchronous postback renders the entire page for any postback.
    • Asynchronous postback executes only one postback at a time, that is, if you have two buttons doing asynchronous postback, the actions will be performed one by one; whereas, synchronous postback executes all the actions at once.
    • Asynchronous postback only modifies the update panel that raises the postback; whereas, synchronous postback modifies the entire page.
    3. What technologies are being used in AJAX?
    AJAX uses four technologies, which are as follows:
    • JavaScript
    • XMLHttpRequest
    • Document Object Model (DOM)
    • Extensible HTML (XHTML) and Cascading Style Sheets (CSS)
    4. Why do we use the XMLHttpRequest object in AJAX?
    The XMLHttpRequest object is used by JavaScript to transfer XML and other text data between client and server. The XMLHttpRequest object allows a client-side script to perform an HTTP request. AJAX applications use the XMLHttpRequest object so that the browser can communicate to the server without requiring a postback of the entire page. In earlier versions of Internet Explorer, MSXML ActiveX component is liable to provide this functionality; whereas, Internet Explorer 7 and other browsers, such as Mozilla Firefox,XMLHttpRequest is not liable to.
    5. How can we get the state of the requested process?
    XMLHttpRequest get the current state of the request operation by using the readyState property. This property checks the state of the object to determine if any action should be taken. The readyState property uses numeric values to represent the state.
    6. What are the different controls of ASP.NET AJAX?
    ASP.NET AJAX includes the following controls:
    • ScriptManager
    • ScriptManagerProxy
    • UpdatePanel
    • UpdateProgress
    • Timer

    7. What are the new features included in the Microsoft AJAX library?
    The Microsoft AJAX library is a client-based JavaScript library that is compatible with all modern browsers and offers a lot of functionality as compared to JavaScript. This library is released with new features and fully supports ASP.NET 4.0'. The new features included in the Microsoft AJAX library are as follows:
    • Imperative syntax - Supports simple imperative syntax that is used to create and manage controls.
    • Script loader - Retrieves all scripts that are needed by one or more client component or control automatically and executes the scripts in the order in which they are received.
    • Client data access - Supports to access client data and display by client data control and client template.
    • Client datacontext - Supports read and write permission to data from a database.
    • The AdoNetDataContext class - Enables you to easily interact with an ADO.NET Data Services service.
    • jQuery integration - Helps to access the elements in your Web pages, work with client-side events, enable visual effects, and make it easier to use AJAX in your applications.
    8. Explain the Step property of the NumericUpDownExtender control.
    The Step property sets the steps for numeric increment and decrement. The default value is 1.
    9. What are the new features of ASP.NET AJAX 4.0?
    ASP.NET 4.0 AJAX includes several new features that provide more functionality to a user. These features are as follows:
    • Support for live data binding.
    • Support for client-side template rendering.
    • Support for declarative instantiation of client components.
    • Support for using the observer pattern on JavaScript objects and arrays.
    • Support for invoking ADO.NET data services and data contexts.
    • Support for the DataView control.
    10. Why do we use the UpdateProgress control in AJAX?
    The UpdateProgress control is somewhat related to the UpdatePanel control. The UpdateProgress control enables you to design a user-friendly interface when a Web page consists of a number of UpdatePanel controls for partial-page rendering.

    The UpdateProgress control makes you aware of the status information about the partial-page updates in theUpdatePanel control.
    11. What is JSON?
    JSON is an abbreviation of JavaScript Object Notation. It is a safe and reliable data interchange format in JavaScript, which is easy to understand not only for the users but also for the machines.
    12. How many validation controls are available in ASP.NET AJAX 4.0?
    The following validation controls are available in ASP.NET AJAX 4.0:
    • FilteredTextBoxExtender - Enables you to apply filtering to a text box.
    • MaskedEditExtender and MaskedEditValidator - Restricts a user to enter only a certain pattern of characters in the TextBox by applying a mask to the input.
    • ValidatorCalloutExtender - Attaches to the ASP.NET validators so that the error messages are not displayed as a simple text but as a balloon-style ToolTip.
    • NoBot - Prevents the spam/bot from filling the input forms automatically and uses the Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart (CAPTCHA), which is a type of challenge-response test to ensure that the response is not generated by the computer.
    • PasswordStrengthExtender - Measures the strength of the password text entered within the text box by validating with the different strength specified parameters

    13. Explain the limitations of AJAX.
    The following are the limitations of AJAX:
    • It is difficult to bookmark a particular state of the application.
    • Function provided in the code-behind file do not work because the dynamic pages cannot register themselves on browsers history engine automatically.
    • If JavaScript is disabled, then AJAX is not able to perform any work.
    • Response time may be slow because different controls of a page are loaded at different time.
    14. What are the differences between AJAX and JavaScript?
    The differences between AJAX and JavaScript are given as follows:
    • AJAX sends request to the server and does not wait for the response. It performs other operations on the page during that time. JavaScript make a request to the server and waits for response.
    • AJAX does not require the page to refresh for downloading the whole page while JavaScript manages and controls a Web page after being downloaded.
    • AJAX minimizes the overload on the server since the script needs to request once while JavaScript posts a request that updates the script every time.
    15. Explain the UpdatePanel control.
    The UpdatePanel control specifies the portions of a Web page that can be updated together. As theUpdatePanel control refreshes only a selected part of the Web page instead of refreshing the entire page with a postback, you get more flexibility to create rich and client-centric Web applications.

    Refreshing a selected part of the Web page is referred as partial-page update. You can add one or moreUpdatePanel control in the Web page, which automatically participates in partial-page update without custom client script. The UpdatePanel control uses the UpdatePanel class to support the partial-page rendering.
    16. What does the DynamicPopulateExtender control do?
    The DynamicPopulateExtender control populates the contents of a control dynamically. It enables you to send an asynchronous call to the server that dynamically populates the contents of a control. TheDynamicPopulateExtender control replaces the contents of a control with the result of a Web service or page method call.
    17. What does the MinimumPrefixLength property of the AutoCompleteExtender control do?
    The MinimumPrefixLength property sets the minimum number of characters that must be entered before getting suggestions from the Web service.
    18. What is the importance of client-side libraries?
    Client-side libraries contain built-in code to make asynchronous calls over XMLHTTP. These libraries automatically handle browser compatibility issues. These libraries are based on a programming model similar to ASP.NET.

    19. Can we call server-side code from JavaScript?
    Yes, page methods and Web services are the two techniques to call the server-side code from JavaScript.
    20. What are the components of the ASP.NET AJAX architecture?
    You can divide the ASP.NET AJAX architecture into two components - AJAX client architecture and AJAX server architecture.
    21. Describe AJAX Control Extender Toolkit.
    AJAX Control Toolkit is a set of extenders that are used to extend the functionalities of the ASP.NET controls. The extenders use a block of JavaScript code to add new and enhanced capabilities to the ASP.NET controls. AJAX Control Toolkit is a free download available on the Microsoft site. You need to install this toolkit on your system before using extenders.
    22. Explain the need of the Timer control in AJAX.
    The Timer control is used with an UpdatePanel control to allow partial-page updates at a specified interval. It is mostly used when a periodically partial-page update for one or more UpdatePanel controls is required without refreshing the entire page.

    The Timer control is a server control that sets a JavaScript component in the Web page. The interval property of the Timer control specifies time in milliseconds. Similar to the UpdatePanel control, the Timer control also requires an instance of the ScriptManager control in the Web page.

    When the Timer control initiates a postback, the Tick event is raised on the server for which you can provide an event handler to perform the actions when the page is submitted to the server. The Tick event occurs when the time specified in the interval property has elapsed and the page is posted on the server. You can add one or more Timer controls on a Web page. Usually the entire page requires only a single Timer control; however, you can use multiple Timer controls, if the UpdatePanel controls are being updated at different intervals.
    23. List the different states of XMLHttpRequest with their description.
    The different states of the XMLHttpRequest object are as follows:
    • Uninitialized - Refers to the state when the object has not been initialized.
    • Open - Refers to the state when the object has been created; however, the send function has not been invoked.
    • Sent -Refers to the state when the send function is invoked; however, the status and headers are not available.
    • Receiving - Refers to the state when the process is receiving data.
    • Loaded - Refers to the state when the procedure is completed and the entire data is available.
    24. Can we nest the UpdatePanel controls?
    Yes, we can nest the UpdatePanel control.

    25. What is the role of the ScriptManagerProxy control?
    A Web page cannot contain more than one ScriptManager control. You can use the ScriptManagerProxycontrol to add scripts to other pages; however to perform such an operation, you need to work with a master page that contains the ScriptManager control. If you have only few pages that need to register to a script or a Web service, then you should remove these pages from the ScriptManager control and add them as individual pages by using the ScriptManagerProxy control. If you include the scripts on the master page by theScriptManager control, then the items get downloaded on each page that extends the master page, even if they are not necessary.
    26. What is the work of the ConformOnFormSubmit property in the ConfirmButtonExtender control?
    The ConformOnFormSubmit property determines whether or not the confirm dialog box should wait when the form is submitted for display.
    27. What is the syntax to create AJAX objects?
    AJAX uses the following syntax to create an object:

    var myobject = new AjaxObject("page path");

    The page path is the URL of the Web page containing the object that you want to call. The URL must be of the same domain as the Web page.
    28. Is there any difference between HTML and XHTML?
    Extensible HTML (XHTML) is a markup language that provides the mixture expressions of HTML and XML. XHTML is a flexible markup language that enables automated processing by standard XML tools, which was difficult in HTML.
    29. What are the requirements to run ASP.NET AJAX applications on a server?
    AJAX is a built-in functionality of .NET Framework 4.0. Therefore, you can run an AJAX application by just installing Microsoft Visual Studio 2010. However, to use extenders in your applications, you are required to install AJAX Control Toolkit and copy the AjaxControlToolkit.dll file to the Bin directory of your application.
    30. Describe the situations in which AJAX should not be used.
    You should not use AJAX if:
    • You want the page to show in a search engine, such as Google, because WebCrawler does not execute JavaScript code.
    • The browser does not support JavaScript.
    • You want to create a secure application.

    31. What is the use of the ScriptManager control in AJAX?
    The ScriptManager control is a core control that performs a key role in implementing the ASP.NET AJAX functionality. It helps to use JavaScript for the Microsoft AJAX Library. It should be noted that AJAX Library on a Web page can only be used if the Web page contains the ScriptManager control. This control makes use of theScriptManager class to maintain the AJAX script libraries and script files. It allows for partial page rendering, Web service calls, and use of ASP.NET AJAX Client Library by rendering the AJAX Library scripts to the browser.
    32. How can you find out that an AJAX request has been completed?
    You can find out that an AJAX request has been completed by using the readyState property. If the value of this property equals to four, it means that the request has been completed and the data is available.
    33. Is it possible to use multiple ScriptManager controls on a Web page?
    No, it is not possible.
    34. What are the new controls introduced in ASP.NET AJAX Control Toolkit?
    The following controls are introduced with the new version of AJAX Control Toolkit:
    • SeaDragonExtender control - Refers to the control that is used to deeply zoom the images. You can zoom in or out the image or the particular portion of the image by using the mouse. You can also create a menu over the Seadragon control. This control is helpful when you want to analyze the image closely.
    • AsyncFileUploadExtender control - Refers to the control that provides the facility to upload and save the files on the server asynchronously. You can check the outcome either at the server or client side.
    35. Briefly describe ASP.NET AJAX Framework.
    ASP.NET AJAX Framework provides a platform where developers can develop such type of applications that use the AJAX concept. The AJAX provides the collection of technologies to create dynamic pages at the client side. The JavaScript requests are responsible to retrieve data from the server or send data to the server. Even some processing at server also requires handling requests, such as searching and storing of data. These tasks are achieved more easily using the AJAX Framework.

    AJAX Framework is completely devoted to process requests. The objective of the AJAX engine is to reduce the delays that the user notices while performing a postback to the server. AJAX Framework allows JavaScript functions to send requests to server at the client side. On the other side, it allows the server to process the client's request, searches data, and responds the result to the browser.
    36. Is the AjaxControlToolkit.dll file installed in the Global Assembly Cache?
    No, you have to copy this file to the Bin folder of your application.

    37. What are the different ways to pass parameters to the server?
    We can pass parameters to the server using either the GET or POST method. The following code snippets show the example of both the methods:
    • Get: XmlHttpObject.Open("GET", "file1.txt", true);
    • Post: XmlHttpObject.Open("POST", "file2.txt", true);
    38. What are the extender controls?
    The extender controls uses a block of JavaScript code to add new and enhanced capabilities to ASP.NET. The developers can use a set of sample extender controls through a separate download - AJAX Control Toolkit (ACT).
    39. Describe the AccordionExtender control.
    The AccordionExtender control is similar to the CollapsiblePanelExtender control. It allows you to group multiple collapsible panels in a single control. At the same time, it also manages the collapsed and expanded state of each panel; therefore, expanding one panel at a time. In other words, the AccordionExtender control does not support expanding two or more panels simultaneously. Instead, the header templates of all the panels are always visible so that you can click on any of them to display the hidden contents. By default, theAccordionExtender control opens with one panel as expanded.

    Language-Integrated Query Language

    1. What is Language Integrated Query (LINQ)?
    LINQ is a programming model that is the composition of general-purpose standard query operators that allow you to work with data, regardless of the data source in any .NET based programming language. It is the name given to a set of technologies based on the integration of query capabilities into any .NET language.
    2. What are LINQ query expressions?
    A LINQ query, also known as a query expression, consists of a combination of query clauses that identify the data sources for the query. It includes instructions for sorting, filtering, grouping, or joining to apply to the source data. The LINQ query expressions syntax is similar to the SQL syntax. It specifies what information should be retrieved from the data source.
    3. Write the basic steps to execute a LINQ query.
    The following are the three basic steps to execute a LINQ query:
    • Obtain the data source (The data source can be either an SQL database or an XML file)
    • Create a query
    • Execute the query
    4. Write the basic syntax of a LINQ query in Visual Basic as well as in C#.
    In Visual Basic, the basic syntax of a LINQ query starts with the From clause and ends with the Select or Group By clause. In addition, you can use the WhereOrder By, and Order By Descending clauses to perform additional functions, such as filtering data and generating the data in a specific order.

    In C#, the basic syntax of a LINQ query starts with the From clause and ends with the Select or group by clause. In addition, you can use the whereorderby, and Orderby descending clauses to perform additional functions, such as filtering data and generating the data in a specific order.
    5. In which statement the LINQ query is executed?
    A LINQ query is executed in the For Each statement in Visual Basic and in the foreach statement in C#.
    6. In LINQ, lambda expressions underlie many of the standard query operators. Is it True or False?
    It is true.

    7. What is PLINQ?
    PLINQ stands for Parallel Language Integrated Query. It is the parallel implementation of LINQ, in which a query can be executed by using multiple processors. PLINQ ensures the scalability of software on parallel processors in the execution environment. It is used where data grows rapidly, such as in telecom industry or where data is heterogeneous.

    PLINQ also supports all the operators of LINQ. In addition, you can query 'collections by using PLINQ. It can also run several LINQ queries simultaneously and makes use of the processors on the system. Apart from this, PLINQ uses parallel execution, which helps in running the queries quickly. Parallel execution provides a major performance improvement to PLINQ over certain types of legacy code, which takes too much time to execute.
    8. What are the different Visual Basic features that support LINQ?
    Visual Basic includes the following features that support LINQ:
    • Anonymous types - Enables you to create a new type based on a query result.
    • Implicitly typed variables - Enables the compiler to infer and assign a type when you declare and initialize a variable.
    • Extension method - Enables you to extend an existing type with your own methods without modifying the type itself.
    9. What is the function of the DISTINCT clause in a LINQ query?
    The DISTINCT clause returns the result set without the duplicate values.
    10. What is the DataContext class and how is it related to LINQ?
    After you add a LINQ to SQL Classes item to a project and open the O/R Designer, the empty design surface represents an empty DataContext class ready to be configured. The DataContext class is a LINQ to SQL class that acts as a conduit between a SQL Server database and the LINQ to SQL entity classes mapped to that database. This class contains the connection string information and the methods for connecting to a database and manipulating the data in the database. It is configured with connection information provided by the first item that is dragged onto the design surface.
    11. What is the difference between the Take and Skip clauses?
    The Take clause returns a specified number of elements. For example, you can use the Take clause to return two values from an array of numbers. The Skip clause skips the specified number of elements in the query and returns the rest. For example, you can use the Skip clause to skip the first four strings in an array of strings and return the remaining array of string.
    12. What is Object Relational Designer (0/R Designer)?
    The 0/R Designer provides a visual design surface to create LINQ to SQL entity classes and associations (relationships) that are based on objects in a database.

    13. Which interface implements the standard query operators in LINQ?
    The standard query operators implement the IEnumerable<T> or the IQueryable<T> interface in C# and theIEnumerable(Of T) or the IQueryable(Of T) interface in Visual Basic.
    14. What are standard query operators in LINQ?
    The standard query operators in LINQ are the extension methods that form the LINQ pattern. These operators form an API that enables querying of any .NET array or collection. It operates on sequences and allows you to perform operations, such as determining if a value exists in the sequence and performing an aggregated function, such as a summation over a sequence.
    15. On what parameter does the GroupBy clause group the data?
    The GroupBy clause groups the elements that share a common attribute.
    16. What is a LinqDataSource control?
    The LinqDataSource control enables you to use LINQ. in an ASP.NET Web page by setting the properties in the markup text. You can use the control retrieve or modify data. It is similar to the SqIDataSource andObjectDataSource controls in the sense that it can be used to declaratively bind other ASP.NET controls on a page to a data source. The difference is that instead of binding directly to a database or to a generic class, theLinqDataSource control is designed to bind a LINQ enabled data model.
    17. How can you open the O/R Designer?
    You can open the O/R Designer by adding a new LINQ to SQL Classes item to a project.
    18. The standard query operators are themselves a set of extension methods that provide the LINQ query functionality for any type that implements the IEnumerable<T> interface in Visual Basic. Is it True or False?
    False, as it implements the IEnumerable(T) interface in Visual Basic and the IEnumerable<T> interface is implemented in C#.

    19. What are lambda expressions in LINQ?
    A lambda expression is a function without a name that calculates and returns a single value. All lambda expressions use the lambda operator =>, which read as goes to. The left side of the lambda operator specifies the input parameters and the right side holds the expression or statement block.
    20. Before you query a DataSet object by using LINQ to DataSet, you must first populate the dataset How can you do this?
    You can load the data into the dataset by using different methods, such as:
    • Using the DataAdapter class
    • Using LINQ to SQL
    21. What are the different implementations of LINQ?
    The different implementations of LINQ are:
    • LINQ to SQL - Refers to a component of.NET Framework version 3.5 that provides a run-time infrastructure to manage relational data as objects.
    • LINQ to DataSet - Refers to a component that makes it easier and faster to query over data cached in a DataSet object.
    • LINQ to XML - Provides an in-memory XML programming interface.
    • LINQ to Objects - Refers to the use of LINQ queries with any IEnumerable or IEnumerable(T)collection directly, without the use of an intermediate LINQ provider or API, such as LINQ to SQL or LINQ to XML.
    22. Which command-line tool generates code and mapping for the LINQ to SQL component of .NET Framework?
    The SqlMetal.exe command-line tool generates code and map the LINQ to SQL component.
    23. Name the control that exposes the LINQ features to Web developers through the ASP.NET data-source control architecture.
    The LinqDataSource control exposes the LINQ features to Web developers through the ASP.NET data-source control architecture.
    24. What is the difference between the Select clause and SelectMany() method in LINQ?
    Both the Select clause and SelectMany() method are used to produce a result value from a source of values. The difference lies in the result set. The Select clause is used to produce one result value for every source value. The result value is a collection that has the same number of elements from the query. In contrast, theSelectMany() method produces a single result that contains a concatenated collection from the query.

    25. Which extension method do you need to run a parallel query in PLINQ?
    The AsParallel extension method is required to run a parallel query in PLINQ.